I noticed from the screenshots you’ve attached that there doesn’t seem to be any audio devices installed, as far as macos is concerned. This is the category I was hoping you’d find:
You will notice that alc892 appears under the codec name*. this is the codec used by the audio chip in my mac. knowing your codec would allow you to choose and install a 3rd party driver for your audio chip and in my case this was enough to fix no output device showing up on one of my macs. however, upon further consideration, this may not be the root problem.
I would recommend doing a nvram reset, if that allows the output device to show up. check the app again after doing so, and if the category is present, take another screenshot or note the codec listed. then put the machine to sleep, wake it up, check if the output device has gone and check dpcimanager to see if the category/entries went with it. also repeat the process and try rebooting the machine instead of sleeping/waking it up to see if that makes the output device/dpcimanager entry go away.
if it’s not present after waking up/rebooting the machine, the problem is most likely one I experienced on another one of my macs, as the hda (high definition audio) driver isn’t loading when the machine starts. starts/wakes from sleep.
if it is an issue with the hda driver, which it sounds like it may be based on your description, the only option I know of is to install a third party bootloader that is capable of emulating your mac’s nvram (such as clover uefi), and configure it to manually reset the hda driver on every boot/wakeup.
The boot loader method is pretty easy to set up, and I managed to fix the hda driver on one of my macs not loading on boot that way. It’s a bit of a complicated process, but I can give you a step-by-step if you decide to go that route.
be sure to update your question with any additional information you find, and I’ll update my answer accordingly.
update: In the first of your new screenshots after the nvram reset, I can see that your audio chip is registered and the codec you use is fully compatible with macos. this confirms my theory that the hda driver doesn’t reset on reboot or wake up. as I mentioned the only solution I know of for this problem is to install a third party bootloader that can manually reset it on every boot/activation. I’ll detail the steps to do so below.
In this example, I’ll use the clover efi bootloader, as it’s my personal choice when I need to use a third-party bootloader, and the one I have the most experience with.
1.) Get the clover efi installer from here.
2.) Run the installer (Right Click>Open), go through the pages, and click Customize when you get to this window:
3.) check the following boxes:
*clover only for uefi boot *install clover on esp
in the uefi drivers dropdown
*audiodxe-64 *datahubdxe-64 *fsinject-64 *smchelper-64 *vboxhfs-64 *apfsdriverloader-64 *aptiomemoryfix-64 *emuvariableuefi-64 *partitiondxe-64 *ps2mousedxe-64 *usbkbdxe-64 *usbmousedxe- 64 *vboxext2-64 *vboxext4-64
in the filevault 2 uefi drivers dropdown
*install rc scripts on target volume *install cloverleaf preferences panel
4.) double check to make sure everything listed is checked and nothing not listed is checked. once done, click the install button.
5.) Download the clover configurator from here.
6.) Once it has been successfully installed, open it, and at the bottom of the screen click the path that reads EFI > EFI > CLOVER > config.plist.
7.) Now go down to the Devices tab, and in the top right corner check the box labelled ResetHDA if it is not already. Make sure not to change any other options in any of the tabs. When you are done hit Command-S to save the config (only if you had to check the box, if it was already checked you are good to go.)
8.) reboot your machine. once you’ve gone through clover and restarted macos, your audio output should work fine, and the chip/jack should show up in dpcimanager and system preferences>sound>output respectively.
I’ve run into this issue on several macs, both official and hackintosh, and this has always been able to resolve the issue. if you need more details or if something goes wrong, please let me know.
See also: Chord Hugo TT2 review | What Hi-Fi?